Historical Document - French Revolution - 1799 - Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte - Amnesties for the Deserters
Historical original document dated August 15th, 1799 (29 Fructidor, Year VII of the French Republic, one and indivisible) and Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, original lithograph
Circulaire written on laid paper with watermark during the French Revolution from the Minister of War Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte to the General-in-chiefs of the Armies concerning the law of the 27 Messidor relating to the amnesty granted to the soldiers who deserted their regiment. Dated September 15th, 1799 (29 Fructidor, Year VII of the French Republic, one and indivisible)
This historical document is composed of these 2 documents mounted under passepartout :
Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte - Amnesties for the Deserters
Original document dated August 15th, 1799 (29 Fructidor, Year VII of the French Republic, one and indivisible)
Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte
The Directory was the governing five-member committee in the French First Republic from 2 November 1795 until 9 November 1799.
On 27 July 1794, members of the Convention, revolutionary parliament of France, rose up against its leader Maximilien Robespierre, who was in the midst of executing thousands of suspected enemies of the Revolution. Robespierre and his leading followers were arrested on 28 July and guillotined the same day.
It is a gradual return of the bourgeoisie to power after the Terror. The Thermidorian Convention, last year of the National Convention, chose an eleven-member commission to establish a new constitution replacing that of Year I, deemed too democratic and assimilated to Terror. This commission includes all five Directors, Heads of Government, between whom the executive and ministers are divided. She will sit at the Luxembourg Palace. Established, inspired by the bourgeoisie, the regime re-established the censorship vote, which was used to elect the two legislative chambers, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. Elections were held from 12 to 21 October 1795 (20 to 29 venomial year IV).
During the Directory, France was continually at war with foreign coalitions, including Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, the Kingdom of Naples, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. He annexed Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, while Bonaparte conquered much of Italy.
The elections of germinal of the year V (March-April 1797), in the troubled context of the attempt to overthrow the Directory led by Gracchus Babeuf (Conjuration of the Equals), displayed a great victory for the royalists. The Coup d'Etat of 18 fructidor an V (4 September 1797), was led by three of the five Directors (including Paul Barras) supported by the army, against the royalists who became the majority in the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. The royal push is stopped and the repression is brutal. Many deputies and journalists, as well as Director Barthelemy, are deported to Guyana. In the executive branch, two directors are replaced by Republicans.
Sieyès wants to overthrow the Constitution of Year III. It can only be revised after 9 years. The coup d'état of the 18th brumaire of an VIII (9 November 1799), organized by himself and executed by Bonaparte, with the decisive help of his brother Lucien, marked the end of the Directoire and the beginning of the Consulate.
Bonaparte would then gradually gather more power by having himself named Premier Consul, then later Consul for life.
The Directory is an era of moral freedom exemplified by the Incroyables and Merveilleuses and the Directoire style, a fashion trend characterized by its extravagances, in response to the sadness that had spread terror.
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